The Power of a Statutory Demand
If you are in business, whether you are a company director, manager, accountant or advisor, you should understand the power of a Statutory Demand.
This article explains what Statutory Demands are and why they are such a powerful and efficient weapon for collecting debts.
We will also explain what you must to do, and do fast, if you are served with a Statutory Demand. In practice, the process of issuing a Statutory Demand as a means of collecting debts is now commonly used, although it was originally intended to be the first step in an application to wind up an insolvent company.
The Corporations Act deems a company to be insolvent if, having received a Statutory Demand, the company fails to pay the creditor or have the Statutory Demand set aside by a court. It is easy to see how a Statutory Demand places immense pressure on a company to pay its debts.
The most common basis for placing a company into liquidation is insolvency. Just as an individual can be made bankrupt, so a company can be wound up and brought to a commercial end. Whereas an individual continues to live and breathe through and after bankruptcy and the slate is wiped clean, a company that is wound up will usually cease to exist at all.
The test of whether or not a company is insolvent is whether or not the company is able to pay its debts as and when they become due and payable.
Valid Statutory Demands
Statutory Demands can only be served for debts of at least $2,000 and can only be served upon companies. A person trading under a business name without the use of a company cannot be served with a Statutory Demand.
The debt cannot be in dispute. This means that, for example, if the other party claims the goods delivered were incorrect, or not of merchantable quality, and that they should therefore not have to pay for them, then there is a dispute. Also, if there is a claim against you by the company, then this can be used as a basis to ‘offset’ the amount claimed. Statutory Demands in these circumstances cannot assist you. On the other hand, if you are on the receiving end of a Statutory Demand, it may be possible to resist it by raising an on offsetting claim.
Company directors, managers, accountants and people in credit control can all benefit from knowing how to minimise the grounds for the debtor company to claim there is a genuine dispute. For example, if you are being asked by a debtor company for more time to pay a debt, it is prudent to ask the person you are dealing with to put it in writing and confirm they are authorised by the company to do so.
This will make it much harder for them to claim subsequently that there is a ‘genuine dispute’.
In addition, you have to be able to put a dollar value on the debt and the debt amount must be at least $2,000.
The Statutory Demand document claiming the demand must be in the prescribed form, must be in writing and must be signed by or on behalf of the creditor. It must correctly state the debtor’s company’s name and its registered office and it must specify a place in Australia where the debt can be paid. It is permissible to specify that payment be made to the creditor’s solicitors.
The Statutory Demand requires the company to pay the debt or secure or compound the amount owed within 21 days of receiving the Statutory Demand “to the creditor’s satisfaction”. It is for the Court to decide whether a creditor acted reasonably by rejecting a debtor’s proposal.
Judgment does not need to be obtained
One of the significant advantages of Statutory Demands is that it is not necessary to first get judgment against the debtor company. So if there is no genuine dispute about the debt, then serving a Statutory Demand is a faster and more efficient than the alternative of first commencing a legal action.
If a judgment has not first been obtained then there must be an affidavit accompanying the Statutory Demand which verifies that the debt is due and payable and complies with the relevant rules. If the Statutory Demand does not rely on a judgment and it is not accompanied by an affidavit verifying the debt, it will be set aside.
How a Statutory Demand is served
A Statutory Demand must be properly served. It can be served by leaving it at the
registered office of the debtor company, sending it by post to that office or delivering a
copy of the Statutory Demand personally to a director of the company who resides in
a creditor becomes aware that the company no longer occupies the registered
address and the creditor is aware of the new address, then he or she should bring the
Statutory Demand to the notice of the company at that new address.
Accountants need to be very
careful here. Often accounting firms are the registered
offices for many of their clients. Should they receive a Statutory Demand and fail to
deal with the document properly,
, then the accountants themselves
could be liable in negligence.
Resisting a Statutory Demand
If a company wishes to have a Statutory Demand set aside, it must apply to the Court
within 21 days of receiving
the Statutory Demand. The application must be supported by
an affidavit. The application and affidavit mus
t also be served upon the creditor within
the same 21 day period.
The supporting affidavit should state
the grounds for making the application, rather
than simply making an assertion that the debt is not due. If the affidavit is insufficient, it
be supplemented by a late affidavit served outside the 21 day period.
There are strict rules about how an application to set a
aside must be
served, especially if the creditor is in another State.
Reasons for setting aside a Statutory Demand
A Statutory Demand will only be set aside if the amount owed is in fact owed less than
the statutory minimum
; if the debtor has an offsetting claim; if there is a defect in the
demand that would cause substantial injustice;
or if there is some other
reason why the demand should be set aside.
A Statutory Demand which has a defect can only be set aside where it causes
substantial injustice. It will not be set aside if it constitutes
a demand within the terms of
Act and the defect is only a minor irregularity or misstatement.
Risks in Statutory Demands for both debtors and creditors
From a debtor’s point of view, a
problem with Statutory Demand
s is that once the time
for compliance with the demand has expired, unless there is a valid application filed and
served to set the demand aside,
there is absolutely no opportunity of contesting the
and the debtor must either
pay the debt and legal fees or risk being wound up.
A creditor using a Statutory Demand as a quick means of a debt recovery can likewise
have the whole thing blow up in its face. Where there is no judgment already obtained,
all a debtor has to show to set aside a demand is that a
genuine dispute exists. This is
it is prudent to get written
debtor concessions, if possible, at an early point.
Statutory Demand is successfully set aside by the debtor
, the Court will
the creditor to pay the debtor’s legal costs
If there is no dispute,
the only thing left for the debtor company
e payment of the
including payment of the creditor’s legal
Statutory Demands can be
a very effective and
powerful tool for a creditor. Using a
Statutory Demand can be cheaper, faster and more efficient in recovering debts than
other methods and,
if done properly
, will force a debtor to act and act quickly.
There are significant risks for both creditors and debtors when serving or responding to
Statutory Demands. These risks can be minimised by seeking legal advice as early as
more information or if you need assistance and
advice on how to handle
any debt matters, please call us on